A sharp upturn in infections caused by the Delta variant and a slowdown in vaccinations have pushed governments to make COVID-19 shots mandatory for health workers and other high-risk groups.
A growing number of countries are also making shots compulsory for public servants and other workers.
Here are some countries’ vaccine mandates, listed according to categories of people affected:
** INDONESIA made inoculations mandatory in February, warning that anyone who refused to be vaccinated could be denied social assistance or government services or be made to pay a fine.
** MICRONESIA, a small South Pacific island nation, mandated in July that its adult population be inoculated.
** TURKMENISTAN has made vaccination mandatory for all residents aged 18 and over.
GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR WORKERS
** CANADA in October said it would place unvaccinated federal employees on unpaid leave and require COVID-19 shots for air, train and ship passengers. It will also require all its 338 lawmakers to be fully vaccinated against COVID-19 when they return to work on Nov. 22.
** COSTA RICA in September mandated all state workers to be vaccinated.
** EGYPT will mandate public sector workers to either be vaccinated or take a weekly coronavirus test to be allowed to work in government buildings after Nov. 15.
** FIJI introduced a “no jab, no job” policy in August, with unvaccinated public servants forced to go on leave and subsequently dismissed if still unvaccinated by November. Employees at private firms could also face fines and companies could be forced to stop operations over vaccine refusals.
** HUNGARY, which earlier made COVID shots mandatory for healthcare workers, said in October it would also require employees at state institutions to be vaccinated.
** ITALY made COVID-19 health passes mandatory for all workers in October. Workers unable to show proof of vaccination, a negative test or recent recovery from infection would be suspended without pay and face a fine if they try to keep working.
** LATVIA on Nov. 4 allowed businesses to fire workers who refuse to either get a vaccine or transfer to remote work.
** RUSSIA’s capital Moscow ordered all workers with public-facing roles to be vaccinated in June, giving companies a month to ensure at least 60% of staff had received first doses, while St. Petersburg on Nov. 9 ordered mandatory vaccination for people over 60 and those with chronic illnesses.
** SAUDI ARABIA in May mandated that all public and private sector workers wishing to attend a workplace get vaccinated. People must also be vaccinated in order to enter any government, private, or educational establishment.
** TUNISIA in October mandated officials, employees and visitors to show a card proving inoculation to access public and private administrations. Unvaccinated employees would be suspended from their job until they are able to present the pass.
** TURKEY began demanding negative COVID-19 tests and proof of vaccination for some sectors in August, including teachers and domestic travel employees.
** UKRAINE in October made vaccinations compulsory for public sector employees including teachers. The unvaccinated also face restrictions on access to restaurants, sports and other public events.
** UNITED STATES President Joe Biden on Sept. 10 ordered all federal workers and contractors to be vaccinated. A mandate that private-sector workers be vaccinated or tested weekly will be enforced from Jan. 4.
** AUSTRALIA in late June made vaccinations mandatory for high-risk aged-care workers and employees in quarantine hotels.
** BRITAIN in October made it mandatory for care home staff in England to be vaccinated. Health workers in England will have to be inoculated by April 1.
** FRANCE required all healthcare and care home workers, home aids and urgent care technicians to have had at least their first shot by Sept. 15, with around 3,000 workers suspended for failing to comply with the mandate.
** GREECE made vaccinations mandatory for nursing home staff in July and healthcare workers in September.
** NEW ZEALAND said in October it would require teachers and workers in the health and disability sectors to be fully vaccinated.
** Western Australia will require all employees working in mining, oil and gas exploration to have their first dose by Dec. 1 and to be fully vaccinated by Jan. 1.
** CHINA’s capital Beijing is demanding a vaccine booster shot for key workers on construction sites, including cooks, security guards and cleaning personnel.
** KAZAKHSTAN introduced mandatory vaccinations or weekly testing for people working in groups of more than 20.
ENTRY TO PUBLIC VENUES
** AUSTRIA barred those not fully vaccinated from cafes, restaurants and hairdressers as of Nov. 8, with measures likely to stay in force over Christmas and New Year.
** BULGARIA as of Oct. 21 made a COVID-19 “health pass” mandatory for people visiting public venues such as cafes, hotels, concert halls, museums and swimming pools.
** CZECH REPUBLIC on Oct. 20 said it would require restaurants and clubs to check COVID certificates showing a person’s vaccination or testing status.
** France will require those aged 65 and older to present proof of a booster shot from mid-December for health passes that give access to restaurants, trains and planes to remain valid.
** LEBANON limited entry to restaurants, cafes, pubs and beaches to people holding vaccine certificates or those who have taken antibody tests.
** MOROCCO introduced a vaccine pass on Oct. 21 for access to all government buildings, as well as spaces such as cafes, restaurants, cinemas, gyms and transportation.
** NETHERLANDS introduced in September a health pass showing proof of vaccination to go to bars, restaurants, clubs or cultural events.
** ROMANIA made health passes mandatory for entry to most public venues from Oct. 25.
** Many Russian regions that have emerged from a workplace shutdown now require people to present proof of vaccination or earlier infection when visiting cafes, restaurants or shopping centres.
** SWITZERLAND requires people entering bars, restaurants and fitness centres to show a COVID-status certificate providing proof of vaccination, recovery from infection or a negative test result.
(Compiled by Oben Mumcuoglu, Dagmarah Mackos and Paulina Cwikowska; editing by Anna Pruchnicka, Milla Nissi, Ed Osmond and Gareth Jones)