30 BC – Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves minor victory over Octavian, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to Octavian’s invasion of Egypt
1620 – Pilgrim Fathers depart Leiden, Netherlands for England on their way to America
1667 – The Treaty of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and transferred New Netherland (now New York and New Jersey) to England.
1917 – World War I: Battle of Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres) begins, goes on to cause approximately 500,000 casualties
1948 – U.S. President Harry S. Truman dedicated Idlewild Airport as New York International Airport (rededicated as John F. Kennedy International Airport in 1963).
1961 – Israel welcomes its one millionth immigrant
1971 – Apollo 15 astronauts James B. Irwin and David Scott first used the four-wheeled battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicle to extensively explore the Moon’s surface, in particular the Hadley-Apennine site.
1994 – A UN Security Council resolution authorized the use of “all necessary means” to restore democracy to Haiti.
2007 – Operation Banner, the presence of the British Army in Northern Ireland, and longest-running British Army operation ever, comes to an end
Births & Deaths:
1965 – British author J.K. Rowling, creator of the immensely popular Harry Potter series, was born.
1928 – Halina Konopacka of Poland hurls discus world record 39.62m to win first gold medal in women’s Olympic athletics at the Amsterdam Games; American Lillian Copeland and Ruth Sveberg of Sweden take minor medals
1959 – Cliff Richard and the Shadows have their 1st British No. 1 single with “Living’ Doll” (biggest British single of 1959)
TV & Film:
1912 – US government prohibits movies and photos of prize fights (censorship)
Via Britannica / On This Day