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On This Day…

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1616 - First non-aristocratic, free public school in Europe is opened in Frascati, Italy 

1821 - Act of Independence of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras & Nicaragua declare their independence from the Spanish Empire 

1835 - HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board reaches the Galapagos Islands 

1928 - Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin while studying influenza 

1940 - Battle of Britain Day: climax of the Battle of Britain, tide begins to turn as the Royal Air Force repulses a major Luftwaffe attack, losing 29 aircraft to the Germans’ 57-61 

1950 – United Nations troops landed at Inch’ŏn, South Korea, crippling a North Korean invasion during the Korean War. 

1963 – Members of the Ku Klux Klan bombed the predominantly African American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four girls. 

1981 - Pope John Paul II publishes encyclical “Laborem exercens” against capitalism/Marxism 

1997 - Google.com is registered as a domain name 

2014 - President Obama announces the US will send 3,000 troops to help combat spread of the Ebola virus 

2019 - Hong Kong police fire water cannons and tear gas at thousands of protesters outside the British embassy, as protests continue in the city 

Births & Deaths: 

1984 – Prince Harry of Wales—the younger son of Charles, prince of Wales, and Diana, princess of Wales—was born in London. 

2004 – American rock guitarist Johnny Ramone—who cofounded the Ramones, a band that influenced the rise of punk rock on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean—died in Los Angeles. 

2020 – Astronomers report possible sign of life on Venus, after detecting phosphine in planets’s atmosphere by telescope

Film & TV: 

1949 - The Lone Ranger, originally a radio series, debuted on television, with Clayton Moore as the renegade lawman and Jay Silverheels as Tonto. 

1965 - “Lost in Space” premieres 

1995 - “Se7en” directed by David Fincher and starring Morgan Freeman, Brad Pitt and Kevin Spacey premieres in New York 

Music: 

2005 - “Be Without You” single released by Mary J. Bilge (Billboard Song of the Year 2006, Grammy Award Best R&B Song, Best Female R&B Vocal Performance 2005) 

1980 Paul McCartney releases “Temporary Secretary” 

Sport: 

1960 - Maurice Richard announces his retirement. He finishes his career with 544 goals, an NHL record at the time. 

1978 – Muhammad Ali won the world heavyweight boxing championship for the third time with his victory over Leon Spinks. 

Via Britannica / On This Day