644 – Uthman ibn Affan, companion of Muhammad, appointed 3rd Caliph of Islam.
1287 – During St. Lucia’s Flood in Northwest Netherlands the Zuiderzee seawall collapses with loss of over 50,000 lives. Fifth largest recorded flood in history. 1542 – Princess Mary Stuart succeeds her father James V and becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland at 6 days old.
1774 – First incident of American Revolution – 400 attack Fort William and Mary, New Hampshire.
1900 – German physicist Max Planck publishes his groundbreaking study of the effect of radiation on a “blackbody” substance, and the quantum theory of modern physics is born.
1911 - Norwegian Roald Amundsen‘s expedition is the 1st to reach the South Pole.
1960 – The convention establishing the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was signed by 18 European countries, the United States, and Canada.
1939 – On this day, the League of Nations, the international peacekeeping organization. formed at the end of World War I, expels the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in response to the Soviets’ invasion of Finland on October 30.
1979 – British punk rock band the Clash released its breakthrough album, London Calling.
1995 - Yugoslav Wars: The Dayton Agreement is signed in Paris by leaders of various governments ending the conflict in former Yugoslavia.
Film: 1993 – “Philadelphia” one of the first mainstream films about AIDS, directed by Jonathan Demme, starring Tom Hanks and Denzel Washington premieres in Century City, California.
Via Britannica / On This Day