1431 – Judges’ investigations for the trial of Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France, the seat of the English occupation government.
1760 – Afghans defeat Marathas in battle of Barari Ghat.
1839 – Daguerreotype photo process announced at French Academy of Science.
1909 – Ernest Shackleton as part of the British Nimrod Expedition reaches a record farthest South latitude (88°23′ south).
1941 - 6,000 Jews exterminated in a pogrom in Bucharest, Romania.
2001 – Apple introduced iTunes, a digital media player application that, with the year’s later debut of the iPod, revolutionized digital music.
2007 - Apple Inc CEO Steve Jobs announces the iPhone.
Film: 1959 – ”Rawhide” with Clint Eastwood premieres on CBS TV.
Music: 2002 - Michael Jackson receives the Artist of the Century award at the American music awards.
Births & Deaths: 1908 – Simone de Beauvoir, French writer and feminist who gave a literary transcription to the themes of existentialism, was born in Paris.
1982 – Catherine Middleton, who married (2011) Prince William and became the duchess of Cambridge, was born in Reading, Berkshire, England.
Via Britannica / On This Day