1498– Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama arrives at Calicut, India becoming the first European to reach India by sea
1784 – The Netherlands yielded to Great Britain some of its holdings in India and Indonesia in a treaty signed as part of the Peace of Paris, a collection of treaties that concluded the American Revolution.
1609– Shakespeare’s Sonnets are first published in London, perhaps illicitly, by publisher Thomas Thorpe
1862– US President Abraham Lincoln signs into law the Homestead Act to provide cheap land for the settlement of the American West (80 million acres by 1900)
1864– Spotsylvania campaign in US Civil War ends after 10,920 killed or injured
1882 – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy secretly formed the Triple Alliance, a treaty organization that provided for mutual protection against attacks by other European powers until Italy entered World War I.
1927– At 7:40 AM, Charles Lindbergh takes off from New York to cross the Atlantic for Paris, aboard Spirit of St Louis (1st non-stop flight)
1927 - Saudi Arabia becomes independent of Great Britain in the Treaty of Jeddah
1990– Hubble Space Telescope sends its 1st photographs from space Births & Deaths: 1806 – Economist and philosopher John Stuart Mill was born in London.
1946 – American singer and actress Cher, who was known for her flamboyant style, was born.
Film: 1891 - History of cinema: The first public display of Thomas Edison’s prototype kinetoscope to members of the National Federation of Women’s Club
Music: 1983 - “Every Breath You Take” single released by The Police (Billboard Song of the Year 1983)
Sport: 1900– IISummer (Modern) Olympic Games open in Paris (last 5 months)