356 BC – Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
365 – Crete Earthquake followed by tsunami around the Eastern Mediterranean allegedly destroys Alexandria
1798 – Napoleon’s Army of Egypt used a new military tactic, the massive divisional square, to defeat the Egyptian forces of Murād Bey this day in 1798 at the Battle of the Pyramids during Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign.
1861 - First Battle of Bull Run [Battle of First Manassas], 1st major battle of the US Civil War is fought near Manassas, Virginia, Confederate victory
1904 – After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway is completed
1925 – John T. Scopes found guilty of teaching evolution in the “Scopes monkey trial”, Dayton, Tennessee, fined $100 & costs
1969 – Apollo 11: Neil Armstrong becomes the first person to step on the Moon at 2:56:15 AM (GMT)
1970 – Aswan High Dam opens in Egypt, enables human control of the flooding of the Nile
2007 – Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the final book in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series, was released.
2011 – The U.S. space shuttle program ended, after 135 missions, as the orbiter Atlantis landed at NASA’s John F. Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Births & Deaths:
1967 – Albert John Luthuli, president of the African National Congress (1952–60) and the first African to be awarded a Nobel Prize for Peace (1960), died after being struck by a train.
Film & TV:
1943 – “Stormy Weather”, directed by Andrew L. Stone, starring Bill Robinson, Lena Horne and Fats Waller singing “Ain’t Misbehavin‘” premieres in the US
1996 – “The Daily Show” hosted by Craig Kilborn premieres on Comedy Central in the US
2002 – With a record 6 races remaining, German Ferrari driver Michael Schumacher clinches his 5th F1 World Drivers Championship with victory in the French Grand Prix at Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours; 3rd straight title win
1983 – American heavy metal band Guns N’ Roses released the landmark album Appetite for Destruction, which sold more than 17 million copies.
Via Britannica / On This Day