338 BC – Macedonian army led by Philip II defeats combined forces of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea, securing Macedonian hegemony in Greece and the Aegean
216 BC – Second Punic War: Battle of Cannae – Carthaginian army lead by Hannibal defeats numerically superior Roman army under command consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro
1776 -Formal signing of the US Declaration of Independence by 56 people (date most accepted by modern historians)
1790 – 1st US census conducted, the population was 3,939,214 including 697,624 slaves
1832 – Battle of Bad Axe, Wisconsin: 1,300 Illinois militia defeat Sauk & Fox Native Americans ending the Black Hawk War in the US
1858 – Government of India transferred from East India Company to the British Crown
1920 – Marcus Garvey, black leader and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, reached the height of his power as he presided at an international convention in New York City.
1943 – PT-109, a U.S. Navy torpedo boat under John F. Kennedy’s command, was sunk by a Japanese destroyer during World War II.
1990 – Iraq invaded Kuwait on this day in 1990, and Saddam Hussein’s subsequent refusal to withdraw his troops sparked the Persian Gulf War, in which an international force led by the United States quickly defeated Iraq.
2018 – Apple becomes the first American public listed company to reach $1 trillion in value
Births & Deaths:
2016 – Chemist Ahmed H. Zewail, who in 1999 became the first Egyptian and the first Arab to win a Nobel Prize in a science category (chemistry), died in Pasadena, California.
1864 – Saratoga Racecourse, America’s oldest Thoroughbred racetrack, opens its inaugural meet with four days of racing
1961 – The Beatles 1st gig as house band of Liverpool’s Cavern Club
TV & Film:
1973 – “American Graffiti”, directed by George Lucas and starring Richard Dreyfuss and Ron Howard premieres at the Locarno International Film Festival, Switzerland
Via Britannica / On This Day