48 BC – Caesar’s civil war: Battle of Pharsalus – Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.
378 – Battle of Adrianople: Goth army defeats Roman forces under Emperor Valens
1790 – Robert Gray’s Columbia Rediviva returns to Boston after 3 year journey, 1st American ship to circumnavigate the Globe
1898 – Rudolf Diesel of Germany obtains patent #608,845 for his internal combustion engine, later known as the diesel engine
1942 – Mahatma Gandhi and 50 others arrested in Bombay after passing of a “quit India” motion and campaign by the All-India Congress
1945 – US drops second atomic bomb “Fat Man” on Nagasaki, Japan, destroying part of the city
1965 – Singapore separates from the Federation of Malaysia and gains its independence
1969 – American actress Sharon Tate and four others were murdered by followers of Charles Manson, leader of a communal religious cult known as the “Family.”
1974 – Richard Nixon resigns as President of the United States and Vice President Gerald Ford swears the oath of office to take his place as the 38th US President
2014 – Michael Brown, an unarmed African American teenager, was fatally shot by a white police officer in Ferguson, Missouri, resulting in days of civil unrest and protests fueled by tensions between Ferguson’s predominantly black population and its predominantly white government and police department.
Births & Deaths:
1995 – American musician Jerry Garcia, who personified the hippie counterculture for three decades as the mellow leader of the rock band the Grateful Dead, died of a heart attack.
2012 – Jamaican sprint superstar Usain Bolt wins the 200m at the London Olympics in 19.32 to become first to win 100/200m double in back-to-back Olympics
1997 – “Just to See You Smile” single released by Tim McGraw (Billboard Song of the Year 1998)
TV & Film:
1930 – Betty Boop debuts in Max Fleischer’s animated cartoon Dizzy Dishes
Via Britannica / On This Day