622 – Muslim Era begins – Muhammad begins flight from Mecca to Medina (Hijra)
1054 – Three Roman legates fracture relations between Western and Eastern Christian churches by placing invalid Papal Bull of Excommunication on altar of Hagia Sophia during liturgy. Often dated start of the East-West Schism.
1519 – Public debate between Martin Luther and theologian Johann Eck at Pleissenburg Castle in Liepzig, during which Luther denies the divine right of the Pope
1809 – La Paz, Bolivia declares its independence from the Spanish Crown and forms the Junta Tuitiva led by Pedro Domingo Murillo, the 1st independent government in Spanish America
1940 – Adolf Hitler orders preparations for the invasion of Britain (Operation Sealion)
1960 – The island of Cyprus became an independent republic.
Births & Deaths:
1888 – British archaeological scholar and military strategist T.E. Lawrence—who was best known for his legendary activities in the Middle East during World War I, which earned him the nickname “Lawrence of Arabia”—was born in Wales.
1948 – American baseball legend Babe Ruth died at age 53.
1954 – Canadian filmmaker James Cameron—who was known for his expansive vision and innovative special-effects movies, notably Titanic (1997) and Avatar (2009)—was born.
1977 – American singer Elvis Presley, known as the “King of Rock and Roll,” died of a heart attack brought on largely by drug abuse.
2017 – Philippine police kill 32 in raids near Manilia, most deadly night in President Rodrigo Duterte’s war on drugs
Film & TV:
2017 – BBC announces first ever female Doctor Who will be played by Jodie Whittaker
1782 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s opera “Die Entführung aus dem Serail” premieres in Vienna with Mozart conducting
1986 – Madonna‘s “True Blue” album goes #1 for 5 weeks & her single
1987 – Bon Jovi release their 3rd album “Slippery When Wet”
2008 – Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt sets new world record of 9.69 seconds to win the coveted 100m gold medal at the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics
2017 – Wimbledon Men’s Tennis: Roger Federer beats Marin Čilić 6-3, 6-1, 6-4 for a record 8th Wimbledon men’s title
Via Britannica / On This Day