303 – 1st official Roman edict for persecution of Christians issued by Emperor Diocletian
1525 – Battle of Pavia: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V’s troops beat the French. French King Francois I captured, 15,000 killed or wounded
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII announces New Style (Gregorian) calendar
1739 – Battle of Karnal: Army of Iranian ruler Nadir Shah defeats the forces of the Mughal emperor of India, Muhammad Shah
1803 – In Marbury v. Madison, the U.S. Supreme Court declared an act of Congress unconstitutional, thus establishing the doctrine of judicial review.
1821 – Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero agree to the Plan of Iguala, stating that Mexico will become a constitutional monarchy, Roman Catholicism the official religion and that Peninsulares and Creoles will enjoy equal political and social rights
1848 – The antimonarchical Revolutions of 1848 reached France, the one nation where the insurgency was successful.
1868 – US House of Representatives vote 126 to 47 to impeach President Andrew Johnson
1942 – The Voice of America made its first broadcast, in German, to counter the propaganda of Nazi leaders.
1946 – General Juan Perón first elected President of Argentina
1976 – The regime of Fidel Castro adopted the constitution of Cuba, which mandated the operation of only one political party—the Communist Party of Cuba.
1981 – Britain’s Prince Charles announces engagement to Lady Diana Spencer
1983 – A special commission of the U.S. Congress releases a report that condemns the practice of Japanese internment during World War II.
1987 – Radio personality Larry King suffers a heart attack
1989 – Margaret Ray found in David Letterman’s home, claims to be his wife
1991 – U.S. ground operations began in the Persian Gulf War, more than a month after an air war was launched against Iraq to free Iraqi-occupied Kuwait.
1997 – South Africa announces it is constructing largest modern day blimp
1998 – Elton John knighted by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace in London
2008 – Fidel Castro retires as the President of Cuba due to ill health after nearly fifty years
2010 – Europe risks a double-dip recession after bad results emerge from France, Germany and Italy, it is reported today; the Eurozone only grew by 0.1% in the last quarter of 2009
2013 – 10 Chadian soldiers and 28 Muslim insurgents are killed in conflict in Adrar des Ifoghas, Mali
2013 – Raúl Castro is elected to a second term as the President of Cuba
2014 – Pope Francis creates a second Secretariat with the power to audit any Vatican agency at any time
2014 – A 4.4 billion-year-old Crystal is discovered to be the oldest known fragment from the earth’s crust
2016 – Oldest Muslim graves in Europe, from the 8th century, identified at a burial site in Nimes, France
2018 – UN Security Council passes resolution for 30 day ceasefire in Syria
2019 – At least 133 people have died and 200 treated in hospital after drinking toxic bootleg alcohol in Golaghat district, north-eastern India
2020 – Former Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein found guilty of rape and a criminal sexual act in landmark case that ignited #MeToo movement
2020 – Scientists identify the first animal that doesn’t need oxygen to breathe – a tiny parasite living in salmon tissue, reported in journal PNAS
Births & Deaths:
1836 – American painter Winslow Homer, who captured the interaction of humans and nature in his watercolours, was born in Boston.
1955 – American businessman Steve Jobs, cofounder of Apple Inc. and a charismatic pioneer of the personal computer era, was born.
2010 – Sachin Tendulkar scores the first double century in One Day International cricket
1607 – Claudio Monteverdi’s opera “LOrfeo” premieres in Mantua, oldest opera still regularly performed
TV & Film:
1969 – “The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie” film based on novel by Muriel Spark directed by Ronald Neame, starring Maggie Smith (Academy Award Best Actress) premieres in London
Via Britannica / On This Day