392 – Roman Emperor Theodosius declares Christian religion the state religion
1519 – 1st meeting of Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II and Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés in Tenochtitlan, Mexico
1701 – William Penn presents Charter of Privileges
1734 – Vincent la Chapelle, master cook to various nobility and royalty, forms Free Masons Lodge in Netherlands
1895 – German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen produces and detects electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays
1960 – Democratic politician John F. Kennedy was narrowly elected president of the United States.
1972 – The American cable television company HBO officially debuted as it aired the 1971 film Sometimes a Great Notion, which starred Paul Newman.
1994 – In the U.S. midterm elections, the Republicans won control of the House of Representatives and the Senate for the first time in 40 years; the sweeping victory was partly because of President Bill Clinton’s low popularity at the time.
2002 – Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council under Resolution 1441 unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face “serious consequences”
2005 – Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf is elected president of Liberia, the first woman to lead an African country
2013 – The Philippines endured what many consider its worst natural disaster when the country was struck by Super Typhoon Haiyan, one of the most powerful cyclones ever recorded to strike land.
2014 – US President Obama authorises deployment of 1,500 additional troops to help train and advise Iraqi and Kurdish forces fighting Islamic State militants
2016 – Republican Donald Trump is elected President of the United States of America, defeating democrat Hillary Clinton, who received 2.9 million more votes
2016 – Despite trailing in most polls, Republican Donald Trump was elected the 45th president of the United States, though his Democratic opponent, Hillary Clinton, won the popular vote by more than 2.8 million.
2018 – Qatar delivers $15 million in cash to pay civil servants in Gaza after earlier sending fuel to increase electricity from 4 to 8 hours a day
Births & Deaths:
1978 – American illustrator Norman Rockwell, best known for his covers of The Saturday Evening Post, died.
Film & TV:
1966 – Movie actor Ronald Reagan elected Governor of California
1962 – The epic film Mutiny on the Bounty, which recounts the 1789 mutiny on the HMS Bounty. was released in American theatres; it was perhaps best known for its production difficulties, many of which centred on star Marlon Brando.
1999 – Tenor Andrea Bocelli releases his “Sacred Arias” album, the world’s best-selling classical album by a single artist
2017 – Brazilian surfer Rodrigo Koxa breaks the world record for surfing the biggest-ever wave at 24.4m at Nazaré, Portugal
Via Britannica / On This Day